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Comprehensive Guide to Structured Settlements

Understanding Structured Settlements and How They Can Benefit You


Structured settlements are a powerful financial tool, often used as an alternative to lump-sum payments in legal cases involving personal injury or wrongful death. In this comprehensive guide, we will explore the concept of structured settlements, their various components, benefits, drawbacks, and how they can be tailored to meet individual needs.

What are Structured Settlements?


A structured settlement is a financial agreement where a legal settlement recipient receives periodic payments instead of a single lump-sum amount. These arrangements are commonly employed in personal injury, wrongful death, or other legal claims, particularly when claimants have suffered significant losses or require long-term financial assistance. Structured settlements offer a customized payment plan tailored to the claimant's specific needs, ensuring they receive the support necessary to address their financial requirements over time.


Structured settlements have a long history in the United States, dating back to the 1970s. Their popularity increased significantly after the passage of the Periodic Payment Settlement Act of 1982. This legislation provided tax incentives for using structured settlements, including the exclusion of periodic payments from the recipient's gross income for tax purposes. As a result, structured settlements became an attractive option for both claimants and defendants in resolving legal claims involving significant financial compensation.


The primary purpose of structured settlements is to provide long-lasting financial stability and security for claimants awarded compensation for their injuries or losses. By offering a steady income stream over an extended period, structured settlements help claimants manage their medical expenses, living costs, and other financial obligations more effectively. This approach is especially beneficial for individuals who may have difficulty managing a large lump-sum payment or require ongoing financial support due to their injuries or losses.

Additionally, structured settlements can offer benefits to defendants in legal claims. By agreeing to a structured settlement, defendants can avoid the uncertainty and expense of a trial, reduce the risk of making a large lump-sum payment, and potentially lower the overall cost of the settlement. Structured settlements also allow defendants to demonstrate goodwill and a commitment to the claimant's well-being.

In summary, structured settlements offer a flexible, customized solution for claimants and defendants in legal claims involving substantial financial compensation. By providing long-term financial support and stability, structured settlements help claimants meet their ongoing needs while offering benefits to both parties in resolving legal disputes.

Key Components of Structured Settlements

Annuity Contracts

An annuity contract is a financial product an insurance company provides that guarantees a series of payments over a specified period in return for a premium. In the context of structured settlements, annuity contracts serve as the primary mechanism for funding the periodic payments made to claimants. These contracts offer a secure and reliable source of income for the claimant, backed by the financial stability and reputation of the issuing insurance company. Annuity contracts can be fixed or indexed, providing varying levels of protection against inflation and changes in the cost of living. Additionally, the contracts can be designed with various features, such as cost-of-living adjustments or guaranteed minimum payment periods, to tailor the structured settlement to the claimant's specific needs.

Periodic Payments

Periodic payments are the installments received by the claimant in a structured settlement. These payments can be disbursed monthly, quarterly, annually, or according to a custom schedule designed to meet the claimant's needs. The structured nature of these payments helps claimants manage their financial obligations more effectively and reduces the risk of overspending or mismanaging a lump-sum settlement. Periodic payments can also be designed to accommodate changes in the claimant's circumstances, such as increased medical expenses or the need for additional financial support in later years. This flexibility makes structured settlements a versatile and adaptable solution for long-term financial planning.

Payment Schedule

The payment schedule is a crucial component of a structured settlement, as it details the frequency, duration, and amount of the periodic payments. This schedule can include immediate payments to address urgent financial needs, deferred payments to provide future income, or a combination of both. The payment schedule may also include provisions for lump-sum payments to cover specific expenses, such as college tuition or purchasing a home. By tailoring the payment schedule to the claimant's unique situation, a structured settlement offers a personalized approach to long-term financial support that can evolve as the claimant's needs change.

Future Value

A structured settlement's future value represents the sum the claimant will receive throughout the annuity contract's life, including the initial principal amount and any interest or investment gains. Understanding the future value helps claimants and their advisors evaluate the long-term financial implications of a structured settlement, ensuring that the arrangement adequately addresses the claimant's needs and goals. Moreover, the future value can be used to compare the potential benefits of a structured settlement with alternative settlement options, such as a lump-sum payment. By considering the future value and the overall financial impact of a structured settlement, claimants can make informed decisions about the best course of action for their unique circumstances.

Benefits of Structured Settlements

Tax Advantages

Structured settlements offer substantial tax benefits for claimants, making them an attractive option for managing compensation from personal injury and wrongful death cases. According to the Internal Revenue Code, periodic payments from a structured settlement are generally tax-free, allowing claimants to retain a larger portion of their settlement. Additionally, the tax-free status of these payments helps preserve the value of the settlement over time, as claimants do not need to worry about the impact of taxes on their future income. This tax advantage can be especially beneficial for claimants in higher tax brackets or those with significant financial needs that require careful management of their settlement funds.

Financial Security

One of the primary benefits of structured settlements is the long-term financial security they provide for claimants. The periodic payments ensure a steady stream of income to cover ongoing expenses, such as medical bills, living costs, and other financial obligations. This consistent income helps claimants maintain their financial well-being over time and reduces the risk of depleting their settlement funds too quickly or making poor financial decisions. Moreover, the payments are backed by the financial strength of the insurance company that issues the annuity contract, adding a layer of security for the claimant's financial future.


Structured settlements offer a high degree of flexibility, enabling customization to meet the unique needs of each claimant. The payment schedule, amount, and duration can be designed to align with the claimant's financial requirements and anticipated future needs. This adaptability allows structured settlements to accommodate a wide range of circumstances, such as changes in medical needs, educational expenses, or retirement planning. Claimants can also include provisions for lump-sum payments to address specific expenses or financial milestones, further enhancing the versatility of structured settlements as a long-term financial solution.

Protection from Creditors

In many states, structured settlement payments are protected from creditors, which ensures that claimants can retain the full value of their settlement even in the face of financial challenges, such as bankruptcy or debt collection efforts. This protection helps safeguard the financial well-being of claimants and ensures that their settlement funds continue to serve their intended purpose of providing long-term financial support. By shielding the settlement funds from creditors, structured settlements allow claimants to maintain a reliable source of income and focus on their recovery and overall well-being.

In summary, structured settlements offer numerous benefits, including tax advantages, financial security, flexibility, and protection from creditors. These advantages make structured settlements attractive for claimants seeking a reliable, long-term financial solution following a legal settlement. The adaptability and security of structured settlements enable them to accommodate a wide range of circumstances and financial needs, making them a suitable choice for many claimants.

Drawbacks of Structured Settlements

Lack of Liquidity

One of the primary drawbacks of structured settlements is the lack of liquidity. Once a structured settlement has been established, accessing the funds held within the annuity can be challenging. This lack of liquidity may be problematic if the claimant encounters unexpected financial needs, such as emergency medical expenses or unforeseen life events. While it is possible to sell structured settlement payments to a third party for a lump sum, doing so can result in significant fees and the loss of the original tax advantages.

Inflation Risk

Structured settlements may not always account for inflation, which poses a risk to the claimant's purchasing power over time. If the payments are not adjusted for inflation or do not include cost-of-living adjustments, the claimant's purchasing power may decrease as the cost of living rises. This can be particularly problematic for long-term structured settlements, as the effects of inflation can become more pronounced over time. To mitigate this risk, claimants should consider including cost-of-living adjustments or other inflation-protection measures in their structured settlement agreements.

Financial Mismanagement

Although structured settlements are designed to provide long-term financial support and stability, they can still be vulnerable to financial mismanagement if the claimant lacks financial knowledge or experience. In some cases, this can lead to the premature depletion of funds before the end of the payment term or the use of settlement funds for purposes other than those intended, such as risky investments or unwise spending decisions. To minimize the risk of financial mismanagement, claimants should work closely with experienced financial advisors who can provide guidance on managing structured settlement payments and planning for future financial needs.

In summary, structured settlements offer numerous benefits but also have potential drawbacks, including lack of liquidity, inflation risk, and financial mismanagement. Claimants should carefully weigh these drawbacks against the benefits when considering a structured settlement and work closely with their legal and financial advisors to create a settlement plan that best meets their needs and mitigates potential risks.

Structured Settlements vs. Lump-Sum Payments

Comparing Benefits

When comparing structured settlements and lump-sum payments, it is essential to consider the unique benefits each option offers. Structured settlements provide tax advantages, long-term financial security, flexibility, and protection from creditors, making them an ideal choice for claimants seeking a steady income stream and financial stability over an extended period. Conversely, lump-sum payments offer immediate access to funds and greater control over investment decisions, which can benefit claimants with the financial knowledge and discipline to effectively manage a large sum of money.

Determining the Right Choice

Choosing between a structured settlement and a lump-sum payment ultimately depends on the claimant's individual needs, circumstances, and preferences. Factors to consider when making this decision include the claimant's financial knowledge and experience, immediate and long-term financial needs, and risk tolerance.

Claimants with significant financial expertise or immediate financial needs that a structured settlement cannot address might prefer a lump-sum payment. This option allows for more control over investments and financial planning but requires discipline and prudent management to ensure the funds last.

On the other hand, claimants who value long-term financial stability, predictability, and the security of a steady income stream might opt for a structured settlement. This choice is particularly suitable for those with limited financial experience or those who prefer a more conservative approach to managing their settlement funds.

In conclusion, both structured settlements and lump-sum payments have their advantages and drawbacks, and the right choice will depend on the claimant's unique circumstances and preferences. It is essential for claimants to carefully assess their financial needs, knowledge, and goals when deciding between these options and to consult with experienced legal and financial advisors to ensure they make the best decision for their situation.

Structured Settlement Funding Companies

Selling a Structured Settlement

In some cases, claimants may need immediate access to funds and decide to sell their structured settlement to a funding company. These companies purchase structured settlements at a discounted rate in exchange for a lump-sum payment. It is essential to note that selling a structured settlement can result in the loss of the original tax advantages and long-term financial security provided by the structured settlement.

The Process

The process of selling a structured settlement typically involves several steps:

  1. Obtaining quotes: Claimants should request quotes from multiple funding companies to compare the terms and discount rates offered.
  2. Choosing a reputable buyer: It is crucial to research each potential funding company and choose one with a solid reputation and a history of fair dealings with clients.
  3. Obtaining court approval: In most states, selling a structured settlement requires court approval to ensure the transaction is in the claimant's best interest.
  4. Transferring the annuity contract: Once the court approves the sale, the annuity contract is transferred to the funding company, and the claimant receives their lump-sum payment.
Factors to Consider

When selling a structured settlement, claimants should carefully consider several factors:

  1. Discount rate: Funding companies purchase structured settlements at a discount, which means claimants will receive less than the total value of their settlement. Claimants should evaluate the discount rate to ensure they receive a fair settlement price.
  2. Reputation of the funding company: The reputation of the funding company is a critical factor to consider, as it can directly impact the transaction's fairness and the claimant's overall experience. Researching the company's history, reading customer reviews, and seeking recommendations can help claimants make an informed decision.
  3. Potential loss of long-term financial security: Selling a structured settlement can result in losing the long-term financial security it provides. Claimants should carefully assess their current and future financial needs before selling their structured settlement.

In summary, selling a structured settlement to a funding company is an option for claimants needing immediate funds access. However, it is essential to consider the potential drawbacks and carefully evaluate the funding company before proceeding with a sale.

Legal and Regulatory Framework

Federal Legislation

The Periodic Payment Settlement Act (PPSA) of 1982 is a crucial piece of federal legislation that established the tax advantages of structured settlements and set the foundation for their use in personal injury cases. The PPSA amended the Internal Revenue Code to ensure that periodic payments from structured settlements resulting from personal injury or wrongful death claims are tax-free.

State Regulations

State regulations govern the sale and transfer of structured settlements, with each state having its own set of rules and protections in place. These laws protect claimants from predatory practices and ensure they receive fair settlement value. In many states, the sale of a structured settlement requires court approval to confirm that the transaction is in the claimant's best interest. Additionally, some states have implemented specific licensing requirements for structured settlement funding companies to ensure they operate responsibly and ethically.

Tax Implications

While structured settlements are generally tax-free under federal law, certain circumstances may lead to tax consequences:

  1. Punitive damages: If a structured settlement includes punitive damages, the portion of the settlement attributed to these damages may be subject to federal income tax.
  2. Investment income: If a claimant invests the proceeds of a structured settlement in a taxable investment, the income generated from that investment may be subject to taxes.

In conclusion, the legal and regulatory framework surrounding structured settlements involves a combination of federal legislation and state regulations designed to protect claimants and ensure that the tax advantages of structured settlements are preserved. Claimants should know the potential tax implications of structured settlements and consult with legal and financial professionals to understand their situation.

How to Create a Structured Settlement

Negotiating a Settlement

Creating a structured settlement begins with negotiations between the parties involved in the legal claim. This includes the claimant (the injured party) and the defendant (the party responsible for the injury or loss). Both parties and their legal representatives must agree on the settlement amount and terms of the structured settlement. In some cases, a mediator or arbitrator may facilitate the negotiations.

Designing the Payment Schedule

Once the settlement amount has been determined, the payment schedule for the structured settlement is designed to meet the claimant's financial needs. This involves considering factors such as immediate expenses (e.g., medical bills, living expenses), ongoing medical costs (e.g., rehabilitation, long-term care), and future income requirements (e.g., loss of earning capacity, retirement needs). The payment schedule can include immediate payments, deferred payments, or a combination of both and may be tailored to increase or decrease over time based on the claimant's needs.

Choosing the Annuity Issuer

The annuity issuer, typically an insurance company, is responsible for the structured settlement payments. Selecting a reputable and financially stable issuer is essential to ensure the long-term security of the payments. Claimants and their legal representation should research potential annuity issuers, checking their financial ratings, history, and reputation in the industry. The defendant's insurance company may also be involved in the selection process, as they often have a vested interest in the outcome of the settlement.

In conclusion, creating a structured settlement involves negotiating the settlement terms, designing the payment schedule, and choosing a reliable annuity issuer. This process requires careful consideration and the involvement of experienced legal and financial professionals to protect the claimant's best interests and long-term financial needs.


Structured settlements are a valuable financial instrument that provides long-term financial security and stability for individuals who have suffered significant losses or require ongoing support due to personal injury, wrongful death, or other legal claims. They offer a steady income stream and tax benefits, making them an attractive option for many claimants.

By understanding the various aspects of structured settlements, including their benefits, drawbacks, legal framework, and the process of creating or selling them, you can make informed decisions about whether this option is right for your unique situation. This comprehensive guide has provided an in-depth exploration of the subject to help you navigate the complex world of structured settlements and make the best choices for your financial future.

It is crucial to consult with a structured settlement consultant and experienced legal professionals when considering a structured settlement, as they can provide personalized guidance based on your specific needs and circumstances. Ultimately, deciding to enter a structured settlement or pursue alternative options will depend on your needs, financial goals, and risk tolerance.